The immune function is the biggest protective barrier of the human body. Once the human immune function is low, it is easy to suffer from various diseases. Of course, people with a low immune system are more likely to suffer from infection risks and slow wound healing. Therefore, in daily life, we must Pay more attention to our immune function, let me understand the principles of wound care with a low immune system.
How does a weakened immune system affect wound healing?
Wound healing is a very complex process with four overlapping processes, namely, hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The inflammatory phase involves the chemoattraction of neutrophils and monocytes to the injury site. As inflammation progresses, the number of neutrophils declines, and macrophages (monocytes of tissue origin) predominate. Neutrophils destroy bacteria by releasing corrosive proteolytic enzymes. Several inflammatory mediators involved in the wound healing process are affected by immunosuppressant platelets, and when platelets clump together, they also secrete factors that recruit other immune cells, which initiate the inflammatory phase.
Principles of wound care in immunocompromised patients?
1. Wound assessment :
First of all, a comprehensive assessment of physical health and wounds is required. Through regular comprehensive assessments, the stage of wound healing can be determined, and the use of functional dressings can be determined according to the different stages of wounds.
2. Disinfection and cleaning:
Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of infection. Therefore, when providing wound care for these patients, aseptic tools should be prepared in advance, the skin around the wound should be cleaned with disinfectant, and then functional wound dressings should be used according to the wound healing. The proper aseptic operation should be followed throughout the operation, which can reduce the risk of wound infection.
3. Choose the right wound dressing :
The choice of wound dressing depends on the individual characteristics of the wound. An ideal wound dressing should keep the wound moist and free from external contaminants, infection, and physical damage. Wounds should be kept clean by irrigation. It is important to remember that excess wound moisture can lead to maceration, which increases the susceptibility of the wound to infection. Therefore, the chosen dressing should maintain an optimal moisture balance in the wound bed. Suitable dressings include foam, hydrocolloid, and alginate dressings.
4. Use of antibiotic agents :
Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk of infection. All wounds, regardless of etiology, are susceptible to bacterial contamination. Clinical signs and symptoms of wound infection may be less pronounced in immunocompromised patients. Therefore, clinicians should routinely obtain wound swabs and monitor antimicrobial susceptibility in these patients. This will allow wound care specialists to deliver empiric antibiotic therapy tailored to wound culture results.
5. Ensure balanced nutritional intake:
In terms of food intake, it is recommended to eat more whole grains, such as whole grains, which can not only enhance the ability of metabolism but also regulate the human immune system. Appropriate zinc supplementation can enhance the immune function of the human body. It is worth noting that, Since nuts and beans contain phytic acid, animal foods such as shellfish and meat are good sources of zinc and are easily absorbed by the body. If you want to supplement zinc, you can still supplement it by eating more meat.
Immune function is very important to the human body, and people's unhealthy lifestyle has a great impact on immune function. Therefore, if you want to ensure normal immune function, you must correct your unhealthy living habits!
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Editor: kiki Jia
Date: March 7, 2023